Nano Technology and Graphene Research Centre
PUSAT RISET PENGEMBANGAN INSTITUSI NANO TEKNOLOGI DAN GRAPHENE

Mineral Processing and Analysis


Mineral Analysis 
Mineral is a natural resources in the form of an element or chemical compound which is normally crystalline and those has been formed as a result of geological processes. In the initial stage of the developtment, the potential resources need to be examined to know the valuable mineral constituents of a rock or an ore by means of a physical or chemical analysis to observe their properties. Well-informed properties of the minerals serve as a source for feasibility studies of the mining plan and mineral exploitation stage using :

PL (Photolumenescence)

Photoluminescence (abbreviated as PL) is light emission from any form of matter after the absorption of photons (electromagnetic radiation). It is one of many forms of luminescence (light emission) and is initiated by photoexcitation (i.e. photons that excite electrons to a higher energy level in an atom), hence the prefix photo-.[1] Following excitation various relaxation processes typically occur in which other photons are re-radiated. Time periods between absorption and emission may vary: ranging from short femtosecond-regime for emission involving free-carrier plasma in inorganic semiconductors[2] up to milliseconds for phosphorescent processes in molecular systems; and under special circumstances delay of emission may even span to minutes or hours.

Observation of photoluminescence at a certain energy can be viewed as an indication that an electron populated an excited state associated with this transition energy.

While this is generally true in atoms and similar systems, correlations and other more complex phenomena also act as sources for photoluminescence in many-body systems such as semiconductors. A theoretical approach to handle this is given by the semiconductor luminescence equations.

 

Pelkin Elmer LS55

XRF (X-ray fluorescence)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics and building materials, and for research in geochemistry, forensic science, archaeology and art objects[1] such as paintings[2] and murals.

 

Rigaku NEX CG

Baterei 

BST8-STAT-EIS is a Single Channel Potentiostat/Galvanostat with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Activated for Battery/Capacitor/Fuel Cell Analysis. It exports the impedance data to a file format to accommodate free third party EIS analysis software. The EIS analysis software is a user-friendly interface that allows selection of the proper scanning parameters, collect the impedance spectra, display data in Nyquist and/or Bode plots and export data in the proper data format for use in EIS analysis software. A brand new laptop with MS Window 8 and the latest version of testing software are included for immediate use.

BST8-STAT-EIS-LD

Particle Size Analyzer & Zeta Potential

Particle Size Analyzer

Particle size analysis, particle size measurement, or simply particle sizing is the collective name of the technical procedures, or laboratory techniques which determines the size range, and/or the average, or mean size of the particles in a powder or liquid sample.

Particle size analysis is part of particle science, and its determination is carried out generally in particle technology laboratories.

The particle size measurement is typically achieved by means of devices called Particle Size Analyzers (PSA) which are based on different technologies, such as high definition image processing, analysis of Brownian motion, gravitational settling of the particle and light scattering (Rayleigh and Mie scattering) of the particles.

The particle size can have considerable importance in a number of industries including the chemical,food, mining, forestry, agriculture, nutrition, pharmaceutical, energy, and aggregate industries.

Zeta Potential

Zeta potential is a scientific term for electrokinetic potential[1] in colloidal dispersions. In the colloidal chemistry literature, it is usually denoted using the Greek letter zeta (ζ), hence ζ-potential. From a theoretical viewpoint, the zeta potential is the electric potential in the interfacial double layer (DL) at the location of the slipping plane relative to a point in the bulk fluid away from the interface. In other words, zeta potential is the potential difference between the dispersion medium and the stationary layer of fluid attached to the dispersed particle.

The zeta potential is caused by the net electrical charge contained within the region bounded by the slipping plane, and also depends on the location of that plane. Thus it is widely used for quantification of the magnitude of the charge. However, zeta potential is not equal to the Stern potential or electric surface potential in the double layer,[2] because these are defined at different locations. Such assumptions of equality should be applied with caution. Nevertheless, zeta potential is often the only available path for characterization of double-layer properties.

The zeta potential is a key indicator of the stability of colloidal dispersions. The magnitude of the zeta potential indicates the degree of electrostatic repulsion between adjacent, similarly charged particles in a dispersion. For molecules and particles that are small enough, a high zeta potential will confer stability, i.e., the solution or dispersion will resist aggregation. When the potential is small, attractive forces may exceed this repulsion and the dispersion may break and flocculate. So, colloids with high zeta potential (negative or positive) are electrically stabilized while colloids with low zeta potentials tend to coagulate or flocculate as outlined in the table.[3][4]


Mineral Processing
The initial steps of extractive mineral is beneficiation process to recover valuable constituents of an ore to form a concentrated raw mineral by means of a physical separation process. Extractive mineral is a concentrated ore prior to downstream purification processes. The most common mineral beneficiation processes include: sample preparation, comminution, size classification, and concentration.
Our services on mineral analysis and processing begins with the thorough understanding of the client’s inclusive objectives. The comprehensive approaches will be taken into consideration by applying advanced testing methodologies, technologies and analytical instruments.
We recognize that the uniqueness that every client and project requires support at various levels of process development. We work closely with our clients at all stages of the development cycle to assist them to meet their project objectives. Our team will help you identify the best testing methodologies at each stage of the process development cycle from mineral beneficiation to production.

Mineral beneficiation:
In the mining industry beneficiation or benefication in extractive metallurgy, is any process that improves (benefits) the economic value of the ore by removing the gangue minerals, which results in a higher grade product (concentrate) and a waste stream (tailings). Exemplary beneficiation process are froth flotation and gravity separation.
Other economic uses For example, in the diamond industry, the beneficiation imperative argues that cutting and polishing (processes within the diamond value chain) should be conducted in the country to maximise the local economic contribution.

Classification (screening, de-sliming, cycloning):
Minerals are classified according to: Hardness, Specific Gravity (how it compares with the density of water), Color, Luster, Streak, Cleavage and Crystal Form.

Gravity concentration (shaking tables):
Gravity separation is the separation of two or more minerals of different specific gravity by their relative movement in response to the force of gravity and one or more other forces (such as centrifugal forces, magnetic forces, buoyant forces), one of which is resistance to motion (drag force) by a viscous medium such as heavy media, water or less commonly air.

Gravity separation is one of the oldest technique in mineral processing but has seen a declined in its use since the introduction of methods like flotation, classification, magnetic separation and leaching.

Flotation:
Flotation is an important concentration process. This process can be used to separate any two different particles and operated by the surface chemistry of the particles. In flotation, bubbles are introduced into a pulp and the bubbles rise through the pulp. In the process, hydrophobic particles become bound to the surface of the bubbles. The driving force for this attachment is the change in the surface free energy when the attachment occurs. These bubbles rise through the slurry and are collected from the surface. To enable these particles to attach, careful consideration of the chemistry of the pulp needs to be made. These considerations include the pH, Eh and the presence of flotation reagents. The pH is important as it changes the charge of the particles surface and the Eh affects the chemisorption of collectors on the surface of the particles.

If you have any questions about your project's test work, please give us a call at +62-81272974155, we would be happy to answer your questions. Please visit our Staff Page to find out more about our team . Further Inquiry form


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